WASHINGTON — President-elect Joseph R. Biden Jr. on Tuesday criticized the velocity of vaccine distribution underneath the Trump administration and promised to step up the tempo when he takes workplace, whereas delivering a sober warning concerning the toll of the coronavirus pandemic.

Mr. Biden provided a bleak evaluation of the months forward, saying they’d be “a really robust interval for our nation,” and he exhorted Individuals to make the sacrifices needed to beat the devastation of the virus.

“It’s going to take all of the grit and dedication we now have as Individuals to get it executed,” he mentioned.

He warned that if the present tempo of administering vaccines underneath President Trump continued, “it’s going to take years, not months,” to vaccinate the nation. And he mentioned he had directed his crew to organize a extra aggressive effort as soon as he takes workplace in three weeks, pledging “to maneuver heaven and earth to get us stepping into the best course.”

“That is going to be the best operational problem we’ve ever confronted as a nation,” Mr. Biden mentioned throughout an handle in Wilmington, Del., “however we’re going to get it executed.”

Mr. Biden will assume the presidency amid a well being disaster that has already killed more than 338,000 people in america and inflicted widespread financial disruption. Distributing vaccines to the American individuals will pose an early take a look at for him.

Earlier this month, federal officers had mentioned their aim was for 20 million individuals to get their first photographs of a vaccine by the top of the yr. As of Monday morning, 11.4 million doses of the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines had been despatched out throughout the nation, however simply 2.1 million individuals in america had acquired their first dose, based on a dashboard maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which almost certainly displays a reporting lag of a number of days.

Mr. Biden has vowed to get 100 million vaccine shots into the arms of Individuals in his first 100 days in workplace; vaccination at the moment requires two photographs, which might recommend that about 50 million individuals can be vaccinated in that point.

On Tuesday, Mr. Biden introduced new members of his Covid-19 response crew, together with coordinators to deal with vaccinations, testing and provide chain administration.

Operation Warp Pace, the Trump administration’s effort to fast-track the event and rollout of vaccines, spent billions of dollars to assist drug firms take a look at and manufacture their vaccines and be certain that they’d have a purchaser. These investments helped vaccines change into obtainable a lot sooner than many consultants had predicted.

Nonetheless, getting these vaccines into arms has gotten off to a slower begin than federal officers had hoped.

“We definitely usually are not on the numbers that we wished to be on the finish of December,” Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the federal government’s prime infectious illness skilled, mentioned on CNN on Tuesday. However he added, “I imagine that as we get into January, we’re going to see a rise within the momentum.”

Moncef Slaoui, the scientific adviser to Operation Warp Pace, mentioned as recently as last week that the chances have been excessive that the primary 100 million individuals in america can be immunized by the top of March.

Michael Pratt, a spokesman for the Division of Well being and Human Companies, defended the tempo of the vaccine rollout. He mentioned in an announcement that it was “a testomony to the success of Operation Warp Pace” that 20 million doses had already been made obtainable to states and different jurisdictions. (Not all the doses have been shipped.) And Mr. Trump mentioned in a tweet that it was “as much as the States to distribute the vaccines as soon as delivered to the designated areas by the Federal Authorities.”

The tempo of inoculation in america is predicted to select up within the first months of subsequent yr as extra vaccine provide turns into obtainable and extra amenities start giving it out to a wider number of Individuals. To date, vaccines have been given primarily to well being care employees at hospitals and to residents of nursing houses and different long-term care amenities.

In his remarks on Tuesday, Mr. Biden mentioned he may “see a return to normalcy within the subsequent yr,” however he additionally provided an ominous forecast for the close to future. The following few months could possibly be “the hardest throughout this whole pandemic,” he mentioned, including, “I do know it’s arduous to listen to, but it surely’s the reality.”

“We have to metal our spines for what’s forward,” he mentioned.

He expressed hope that Mr. Trump, who has resisted carrying a masks and mocked Mr. Biden throughout the marketing campaign for carrying one, may nonetheless affect the general public in a constructive manner.

“It could make an enormous distinction for President Trump to say, ‘Put on masks,’” Mr. Biden mentioned. “I hope the president will clearly and unambiguously urge all Individuals to take the vaccine as soon as it’s obtainable.”

Hours earlier than Mr. Biden spoke, Vice President-elect Kamala Harris acquired her first dose of a Covid-19 vaccine. The shot was administered on stay tv, simply as Mr. Biden’s was final week when he received the Pfizer vaccine at a hospital in Delaware.

Ms. Harris acquired the Moderna vaccine at United Medical Middle, a public hospital in Southeast Washington. She inspired Individuals to get vaccinated as properly, saying: “It’s comparatively painless. It occurs actually shortly. It’s secure.” Her husband, Doug Emhoff, additionally acquired the vaccine on Tuesday.

State and native officers have lengthy mentioned they need more money to distribute and administer vaccines. The $900 billion reduction bundle that Mr. Trump signed into regulation on Sunday units apart greater than $8 billion for vaccine distribution, roughly in step with the $8.4 billion that well being departments requested from Congress. The C.D.C. in September had sent $200 million to the states for the trouble, adopted by another $140 million this month.

The federal government has mentioned the aim is to permit anybody who needs a vaccine to get one by June, but it surely has not but secured sufficient provide of vaccines which have been approved to be used. The USA has secured commitments for sufficient vaccine to vaccinate 200 million of the roughly 260 million grownup Individuals who’re eligible to be inoculated.

Moderna has agreed to supply 200 million doses of its vaccine to america, with the primary half coming by the top of March and the second half coming by the top of June.

Pfizer has additionally agreed to supply 200 million doses. With every individual requiring two photographs, it leaves the provision 120 million doses quick.

Over the summer time, earlier than its vaccine had been proven to be efficient, Pfizer agreed to supply an preliminary 100 million doses to america. On the time, the government passed on an offer from Pfizer to lock in extra provides.

However because it grew to become clear that extra doses have been wanted, the federal government resumed talks with Pfizer. In a deal announced last week, Pfizer agreed to supply a further 70 million doses by the top of June and one other 30 million by the top of July.

As a part of the deal, the federal government agreed to invoke the Protection Manufacturing Act, a Korean Conflict-era regulation that enables the federal government to extra shortly safe key provides by forcing suppliers to prioritize orders from a selected contractor. Operation Warp Pace has to date used the Protection Manufacturing Act 18 occasions, together with to assist produce glass vials and syringes, based on the Division of Well being and Human Companies.

Mr. Biden mentioned on Tuesday that he would additionally make use of the Protection Manufacturing Act upon taking workplace, saying he would “order non-public business to speed up the making of the supplies wanted for the vaccines in addition to protecting gear.”

The federal government has just a few avenues for offering vaccines to the 60 million American adults not lined by the prevailing offers with Pfizer and Moderna.

It might be able to train choices to purchase extra doses from Pfizer or Moderna. The federal government may additionally flip to vaccines from different producers anticipated to report late-stage leads to the approaching weeks. Johnson & Johnson is anticipating outcomes late subsequent month from a trial of its single-shot vaccine, a format that may make it simpler to ship than the vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna. And a U.S. trial evaluating a two-shot vaccine developed by AstraZeneca and the College of Oxford may have leads to February.

On Tuesday, Mr. Biden acknowledged he was not but accountable for the federal government’s virus response, saying, “My potential to vary the course of this pandemic begins in three weeks.” And he made clear that he would wish assist from Congress subsequent yr to supply extra funding to hold out his plans.

However at the same time as he warned concerning the troublesome weeks and months forward, he struck an optimistic word about the long term.

“We’re going to get by way of this,” he mentioned. “Brighter days are coming.”

Thomas Kaplan reported from Washington, and Rebecca Robbins from Bellingham, Wash.

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