There’s usually the hazard inside Africa and elsewhere to speak concerning the lingering results of European colonisation on the continent in empty generalisations. We offer on this paper some concrete examples as an example the continuing realities of colonisation on the continent, and to actively search means to undo these impacts together with accepting accountability in situations the place these ex-colonial societies have internalized the mentality of coloniality.
What’s in a Identify?
Present names of many African international locations nonetheless reveal how these international locations had been considered firstly as items of a colonial undertaking. International locations names had been determined and imposed by the colonists upon arriving on a land and declaring such land their very own. These names crystallize how European colonists solely considered Africa from their very own dehumanizing and patronizing perspective, that solely targeted on what was helpful and intelligible to them.
Ivory Coast/Côte d’Ivoire (based mostly on the export of ivory);
Cameroon (from the Portuguese ‘Camaroes’ which suggests ‘shrimps’);
Sudan (from Arabic “bilad as Sudan” which suggests “land of the Blacks”); Nigeria (from Niger (the river) – space); Guinea (thought to come back both from the Portuguese phrases ‘Guiné’ or an arabized model of the Djenne phrase “Ghinawen” they each seek advice from “Black Individuals” or “lands of Black folks”). A couple of international locations like Swaziland, Namibia and Ghana have modified their nation identify by both reverting to their Indigenous identify (e.g. The Kingdom of eSwatini) or selecting a brand new identify as an impartial folks.
Railways and Important Business Roads
It’s noteworthy that in lots of African international locations the principle roads and railway go from the inside of the nation to the closest coast and could be dated again to the colonial period. The exploitative undertaking of the colonists revolved round bringing pure sources to the coast and transport them out of Africa. If there was no export on the time in a particular space, these roads and railways would not have been created. Certainly, there was no curiosity for the colonists to encourage intra-continental buying and selling or commerce. To today roads and railways that intention to attach Africans and their sources to one another are nonetheless few and all comparatively latest.
Hospitals had been first established in small numbers and primarily to supply fundamental providers to employees of the colonial regime “as a result of some minimal upkeep of the employees’ well being was an economic investment.”
Entry was not designed for native individuals who weren’t a part of the native elite working within the colonial regime. The lack of access to healthcare and healthcare points turned normalized in any distant, rural space the place no exploitative actions had been performed.
Furthermore, colonization resulted in a unilateral framing of health solely from the western viewpoint which led to a biased reporting of African illnesses,
with little funding in psychological well being, preventive drugs, public well being, well being promotion and well being schooling, and dentistry.
African traditional medicine was additionally antagonized and banned. Conventional drugs continues to be not thought-about as being equal to western drugs regardless of having by no means been totally studied and regardless of the potential of growing an African cultural explanatory model of diseases. It’s telling at many ranges that within the midst of the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, no African authorities tried to develop vaccines.
The ‘Curse’ of Faith
Faith or combative identities stays a essential facet of these institutional and cultural forces that had maintained the colonialist power. Disguised underneath a so-called “necessity to civilize”, faith was used to advance Western hegemony and antagonize non-Western folks and their spirituality by presenting them as inherently inferior, evil, and in want of salvation. This type of pondering is oblivious to the truth that international religions took root in lots of African international locations as a result of the Indigenous folks already had an concept of a Supreme Being or God.
The irony of Europeans assessing African spiritual and religious beliefs as evil once they had been themselves concerned in dehumanizing, kidnapping and trafficking African folks for hundreds of years, appears nonetheless to not be questioned to today by many African followers of those religions.
Monoculture of Money Crops
The colonists compelled particular international locations to supply just some forms of crops and made unattainable a diversified agriculture in African international locations. This was engineered in order that totally different colonial powers would have the monopoly on particular crops and commerce them with different consumers. As soon as manually produced in African international locations, any refining course of that concerned factories was performed in Europe. As Walter Rodney puts it: “It was an inescapable characteristic of colonialism as a complete, based mostly on the understanding that the worldwide division of labor aimed toward expertise within the metropoles and low-level manpower within the dependencies”. Many years later, this assertion reminds correct.
The Invention of the African Lady
In her e-book, ‘The invention of women’, Oyeronke Oyewumi presents how in pre-colonial Yorubaland, social relations had been largely based mostly on age and seniority and never on gender or organic intercourse.
There’s, nonetheless, proof that when Britain invaded and colonized Yorubaland, patriarchy and the submission of girls to males was current in Britain.
In Britain, entry to energy was gender-based […]. The system of oblique rule launched by the British colonial authorities acknowledged the male chief’s authority on the native degree however didn’t acknowledge the existence of feminine chiefs.
It’s no coincidence additionally that international British colonialism on this planet was facilitated by means of the company, which is basically a capitalist establishment for “manpower”.
Not solely had been Black folks seen as inferior to White folks, Black ladies had been additionally seen as inferior to Black males and to each White women and men.
As Oyewumi puts it:
African females … had been dominated, exploited and inferiorized as Africans along with African males after which individually inferiorized and marginalized as African ladies.
Whereas boys and males acquired an schooling that ready them to use for positions within the colonial regime, girls and women’s education focused on embroidery and stitching.
Turning into the Colonizer
An extended-lasting impression of colonialism is the identification disaster and trauma it induced in the way in which Black pores and skin and Africa are perceived or talked about. Colourism, that’s favouring Black folks of lighter hue whereas stigmatizing and marginalizing Black folks of darker hues, could be traced again to slavery and colonialism.
Throughout slavery a lighter hue usually indicated that anyone was combined and due to this fact the offspring of a White individual (sometimes from non-consensual sexual relations with enslaved Black ladies). This could consequently warrant Black folks with lighter pores and skin relatively more privileges than enslaved people with darker skin.
As whiteness turned more and more related to civility, magnificence, and desirability, if a Black individual was of a lighter hue, combined or not, they would typically face less discrimination and will really feel nearer to whiteness and the alternatives reserved for White folks.
Centuries of normalized anti-Blackness and whiteness worshipping throughout colonialism have unsurprisingly resulted in skin-bleaching and hair strengthening practices that are nonetheless common and normalized to today on the continent.
Any expression that solely ties Africa or African international locations to inferior requirements, or that justify inappropriate behaviours (e.g. corruptions, ethnic bigotry, violence, and so on.) by saying “that is Africa”, additionally illustrate long-lasting internalized colonialism as they oversimplify and generalize African practices and cultures to affiliate them solely with damaging connotations and undesirable traits. As Dr. JE Kwegyir Aggrey mentioned, it’s time that Africans and people who are dedicated to Africa’s liberation from a colonial paradigm internalize that “solely the most effective is nice sufficient for Africa”.